Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2017
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes
6. Income Taxes
On a quarterly basis, the Company records income tax expense or benefit based on year-to-date results and expected results for the remainder of the year. The Company recorded no provision for income taxes for the three- and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2017 and 2016.
Deferred income taxes reflect the tax effect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. Based on the Company’s historical net losses during its development stage, the Company has provided a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2017 and 2016.
At December 31, 2016, the Company had federal and California net operating loss carryforwards, prior to any annual limitation, of approximately $55.5 million and $11.1 million, respectively, expiring beginning in 2021 for federal and 2016 for California. The use of the Company’s net operating loss carryforwards is subject to certain annual limitations and may be subject to further limitations as a result of changes in ownership as defined by the Internal Revenue Code and similar state provisions. An ownership change date occurred in June 2014 at the Merger with eOn so that an annual limitation was estimated to reduce the federal net operating loss carryforward to approximately $30.4 million with no further limitation to the CA net operating loss carryforward, and an ownership change date occurred in July 2016, resulting in a reduction of the federal net operating loss carryforward to approximately $9.6 million and a reduction in the California net operating loss carryforward to approximately $5.5 million. Notwithstanding, these federal and state net operating loss carryforwards could be further reduced if there are further ownership changes.
The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. and various state jurisdictions including California. In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to examination by taxing authorities including the United States and California. The Company is not currently under audit or examination by either of these jurisdictions. The federal and California statute of limitations remains open back to 2011 for federal and 2010 for California.  However, due to the fact that the Company has net operating losses carried forward dating back to 2001, certain items attributable to technically closed years are still subject to adjustment by the relevant taxing authority through an adjustment to the tax attributes carried forward to open years.